Wine-Drinking in New Testament Times
ROBERT H. STEIN
As evangelicals we maintain that the Bible is for us the only infallible rule of faith and practice. It is our final authority in all matters of doctrine (faith) and ethics (practice). Yet the Bible was not written to evangelicals living in the twentieth century. The science—or better, the art—of interpreting the biblical text so that the revelation of God written centuries ago is meaningful and correctly understood today is called “hermeneutics.” The basic principle of hermeneutics, to be somewhat simplistic, is that the question “What does it mean for us today?” must be preceded by the question “What did it mean for them yesterday?” If we do not seek first to understand what the text meant when it was written, it will be very difficult to interpret intelligently what it means and demands of us today.
My subject here is the use of the term “wine” in the New Testament. Some readers may already be thinking, “Is he going to try to tell us that wine in the Bible means grape juice? Is he going to try to say that the wine mentioned in the New Testament is any different from the wine bottled today by Christian Brothers or Château Lafite-Rothschild or Mogen David?” Well, my answers are no and yes. No, the wine of the Bible was not unfermented grape juice. Yes, it was different from the wine of today.
In ancient times wine was usually stored in large pointed jugs called amphorae. When wine was to be used it was poured from the amphorae into large bowls called kraters, where it was mixed with water. Last year 1 had the privilege of visiting the great archaeological museum in Athens, Greece, where I saw dozens of these large kraters. At the time it did not dawn on me what their use signified about the drinking of wine in biblical times. From these kraters, cups or kylix were then filled. What is important for us to note is that before wine was drunk it was mixed with water. Thekylix were filled not from the amphorae but from the kraters.
The ratio of water to wine varied. Homer (Odyssey IX, 208f.) mentions a ratio of 20 to 1, twenty parts water to one part wine. Pliny (Natural History XIV, vi, 54) mentions a ratio of eight parts water to one part wine. In one ancient work, Athenaeus’s The Learned Banquet, written around A.D. 200, we find in Book Ten a collection of statements from earlier writers about drinking practices. A quotation from a play by Aristophanes reads: “‘Here, drink this also, mingled three and two.’ Demus. ‘Zeus! But it’s sweet and bears the three parts well!’” The poet Euenos, who lived in the fifth century B.C., is also quoted:
3 to 1—Hesiod 4 to 1—Alexis 2 to 1—Diodes 3 to 1—Ion 5 to 2—Nichochares 2 to 1—AnacreonThe best measure of wine is neither much nor very little; For ‘tis the cause of either grief or madness. It pleases the wine to be the fourth, mixed with three nymphs.
Here the ratio of water to wine is 3 to 1. Others mentioned are:
Sometimes the ratio goes down to 1 to 1 (and even lower), but it should be noted that such a mixture is referred to as “strong wine.” Drinking wine unmixed, on the other hand, was looked upon as a “Scythian” or barbarian custom. Athenaeus in this work quotes Mnesitheus of Athens:
The gods has revealed wine to mortals, to be the greatest blessing for those who use it aright, but for those who use it without measure, the reverse. For it gives food to them that take it and strength in mind and body. In medicine it is most beneficial; it can be mixed with liquid and drugs and it brings aid to the wounded. In daily intercourse, to those who mix and drink it moderately, it gives good cheer; but if you overstep the bounds, it brings violence. Mix it half and half, and you get madness; unmixed, bodily collapse.
It is evident that wine was seen in ancient times as a medicine (and as a solvent for medicines) and of course as a beverage. Yet as a beverage it was always thought of as a mixed drink. Plutarch(Symposiacs III, ix), for instance, states. “We call a mixture ‘wine,’ although the larger of the component parts is water.” The ratio of water might vary, but only barbarians drank it unmixed, and a mixture of wine and water of equal parts was seen as “strong drink” and frowned upon. The term “wine” or oinos in the ancient world, then, did not mean wine as we understand it today but wine mixed with water. Usually a writer simply referred to the mixture of water and wine as “wine.” To indicate that the beverage was not a mixture of water and wine he would say “unmixed(akratesteron) wine.”
One might wonder whether the custom of mixing wine with water was limited to the ancient Greeks. The burden of proof would be upon anyone who argued that the pattern of drinking wine in Jewish society was substantially different from that of the examples already ‘given. And we do have examples in both Jewish and Christian literature and perhaps in the Bible that wine was likewise understood as being a mixture of wine and water. In several instances in the Old Testament a distinction is made between “wine” and “strong drink.” In Leviticus 10:8, 9, we read, “And theLORD spoke to Aaron, saying, ‘Drink no wine nor strong drink, you nor your sons with you, when you go into the tent of meeting. . . .‘“ Concerning the Nazarite vow Numbers 6:3 states that the Nazarite “shall separate himself from wine and strong drink.” This distinction is found also in Deuteronomy 14:26; 29:6; Judges 13:4, 7, 14; First Samuel 1:15: Proverbs 20:1; 31:4,6: Isaiah5:11, 22; 28:7; 29:9; 56:12; and Micah 2:11.
The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia (Vol. 12, p. 533) states that in the rabbinic period at least “‘yayin’ [or wine] ‘is to be distinguished from ‘shekar’ [or strong drink]: the former is diluted with water (mazug’); the latter is undiluted (‘yayin hal’).” ln the Talmud, which contains the oral traditions of Judaism from about 200 B.C. to A.D. 200, there are several tractates in which the mixture of water and wine is discussed. One tractate (Shabbath 77a) states that wine that does not carry three parts of water well is not wine. The normal mixture is said to consist of two parts water to one part wine. In a most important reference (Pesahim 108b) it is stated that the four cups every Jew was to drink during the Passover ritual were to be mixed in a ratio of three parts water to one part wine. From this we can conclude with a fair degree of certainty that the fruit of the vine used at the institution of the Lord’s Supper was a mixture of three parts water to one part wine. In another Jewish reference from around 60 B.C. we read, “It is harmful to drink wine alone, or again, to drink water alone, while wine mixed with water is sweet and delicious and enhances one’s enjoyment” (II Maccabees 15:39).
In ancient times there were not many beverages that were safe to drink. The danger of drinking water alone raises another point. There were several ways in which the ancients could make water safe to drink. One method was boiling, but this was tedious and costly. Different methods of filtration were tried. The safest and easiest method of making the water safe to drink, however, was to mix it with wine. The drinking of wine (i.e., a mixture of water and wine) served therefore as a safety measure, since often the water available was not safe. (I remember drinking some water in Salonica, Greece, that would have been much better for me had it been mixed with wine or some other purifying agent.)
When we come to the New Testament the content of the wine is never discussed. The burden of proof, however, is surely upon anyone who would say that the “wine” of the New Testament is substantially different from the wine mentioned by the Greeks, the Jews during the intertestamental period, and the early church fathers. In the writings of the early church fathers it is clear that “wine” means wine mixed with water. Justin Martyr around A.D. 150 described the Lord’s Supper in this way: “Bread is brought, and wine and water, and the president sends up prayers and thanksgiving”(Apology 1, 67, 5). Some sixty-five years later Hippolytus instructed the bishops that they shall “eucharistize [bless] first the bread into the representation of the Flesh of Christ; and the cup mixed with wine for the antitype of the Blood which was shed for all who have believed in Him”(Apostolic Tradition XXIII, 1). Cyprian around A.D. 250 stated in his refutation of certain heretical practices:
Nothing must be done by us but what the Lord first did on our behalf, as that the cup which is offered in remembrance of Him should be offered mingled with wine. . . .
Thus, therefore, in considering the cup of the Lord, water alone cannot be offered, even as wine alone cannot be offered. For if anyone offer wine only, the blood of Christ is dissociated from us: but if the water be alone, the people are dissociated from Christ. . . . Thus the cup of the Lord is not indeed water alone, nor wine alone, unless each be mingled with the other [Epistle LXII, 2, 11 and 13].
Unmixed wine and plain water at the Lord’s Supper were both found unacceptable. A mixture of wine and water was the norm. Earlier in the latter part of the second century Clement of Alexandria stated:
It is best for the wine to be mixed with as much water as possible. . . . For both are works of God, and the mixing of the two, both of water and wine produces health, because life is composed of a necessary element and a useful element. To the necessary element, the water, which is in the greatest quantity, there is to be mixed in some of the useful element [Instructor II, ii, 23.3—24.1].
To consume the amount of alcohol that is in two martinis by drinking wine containing three parts water to one part wine, one would have to drink over twenty-two glasses. In other words, it is possible to become intoxicated from wine mixed with three parts of water, but one’s drinking would probably affect the bladder long before it affected the mind.
In concluding this brief article I would like to emphasize two points. First, it is important to try to understand the biblical text in the context in which it was written. Before we ask “What does the biblical text mean for us today?” we must ask “What did it mean to them originally?” Second, there is a striking difference between the drinking of alcoholic beverages today and the drinking of wine in New Testament times. If the drinking of unmixed wine or even wine mixed in a ratio of one to one with water was frowned upon in ancient times, certainly the drinking of distilled spirits in which the alcoholic content is frequently three to ten times greater would be frowned upon a great deal more.
Robert H. Stein is associate professor of New Testament at Bethel College, St. Paul, Minnesota. He has the B.D. from Fuller Seminary, S.T.M. from Andover Newton Theological School, and Ph.D. from Princeton Seminary.
Jesus, Thank You | CBMW
By GraceAnna Castleberry
“Jesus, help us! Jesus, help us!” my two year old shouted over and over again as she ran in circles around our living room. I’ve probably heard those lines a hundred times since I read her the story of the ten lepers Jesus healed. She had been sick for
days with a double ear infection and sore throat. After her little body recuperated, I picked up one of her Read Aloud Bible Story books and the page fell open to the story of the ten lepers. How perfect, I thought. In the story, the lepers cry out, “Jesus, help us!” as Jesus approaches. I read that line in a dramatic voice as I cupped my hands around my mouth. I explained to her how sick these men were and how Jesus made them well, just as He had helped her get well. “Jesus, help us! Jesus, help us!” she started chanting over and over and hasn’t forgotten since.
Miraculously Made Well
Those two lines finally drove me to read Luke 17 again for myself. Ten men are plagued with leprosy and are forced to live outside the city. Shunned and isolated, they had to shout to be heard by Christ the day he walked by. Their only hope of being restored to a normal life was healing. Who knows how many times they had cried in desperation to passersby before, only to be ignored. But that day was different. The Son of David was passing by and perhaps he would have mercy on them and do what no one else could do. The Scripture records that when Jesus heard their cries, “he saw them” (Luke 17:14). He told them to go show themselves to the priests in the temple. As the lepers were on their way, they were cleansed. All ten were miraculously healed. Yet only one turned back to thank Jesus. Only one. He “fell on his face at Jesus’ feet giving thanks,” and praised God “with a loud voice” (Luke 17:15-16). It is then that saving healing took place, “Rise and go your way,” Jesus said, “Your faith has made you well.”
Remember Our Redemption
It’s that time of year again, the “thankful” season. As I give thanks this month, I don’t want to be insincere or surface level in my gratitude. Yes, I want to appreciate the small things, but I want something deeper than that. I want to feel thankfulness at the core of my being. But how does that happen? How do I give thanks to God like that on a mundane morning? How do I gain the gratitude of the healed leper that ran to Jesus? What I learn from the one leper is that true thanksgiving is rooted in redemption. The leper recognized the gravity of what had happened when he was healed. He had been made well by God(17:15). Skin still tingling with freshness, he could not help but utter deep, heartfelt thanks to God. Sometimes it’s easy to forget our predicament before Christ cleansed us. We forget that we were separated from God and our sinful condition was much worse than leprosy. We were dead (Colossians 2:13). Maybe it’s been a while since Jesus “saw us” and made us well. We no longer feel the magnitude of our forgiveness and we go on our way, happy with circumstantial things. We forget to turn back. But we must return. We must return over and over again, day after day, and remember what Jesus has done for us. He has saved us. He has given us a future and a hope and He is now our Father.
Thankfulness to a Person
I also learn from the ten lepers that there is a big difference between being thankful for something (the other nine lepers were thankful), and being thankful to someone. The nine lepers only wanted what Jesus could do for them. After they received that, they went on their merry way. Their earthly lives were better and they were content with that surface level change. They were overjoyed with the gift, but they did not care much about the Giver. But the one leper was overcome with gratefulness and it drove Him to Christ. James 1:17 says, “Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights with whom there is no variation or shadow due to change.” True thanksgiving sees beyond the gift, to the Giver, who is God. That’s what makes the Thanksgiving season so different for us as Christians. We run back over and over again to the Giver. And it’s shouldn’t be a thankfulness that happens only in November, but all year long.
A Satisfying Feast
There is only one source for true thanksgiving and that is Christ. When the trials of life are heavy, and the tears are near, I must remember who I am and who I was and who God is. If my focus is on me, and my circumstances, I will never exude true thanksgiving. I may utter a thankful thought at best for the gift, but I will never “Come into His presence with singing!” (Psalm 100:2) or fall on my face in praise. This kind of joy will only take root in my heart when I spend time with God in His Word. Amazingly, He calls to me and invites me to come, “If anyone is thirsty let him come to me and drink” (John 7:37). When I come to the fountain of living water, He will be more satisfying than any gourmet feast. From my “innermost being will flow rivers of living water.” My heart will overflow with thanksgiving because of the greatness of the Giver.
As you hang your “Give Thanks” banner for the rest of this month, I hope you see more than pretty burlap bunting. May those simple words cause you to run over and over again to the Giver, and rejoice in thankfulness to the One who “made you well.”
GraceAnna Castleberry is a wife, mother, and worker at home. She lives in Louisville, KY with her husband Grant, who is pursuing a M.Div. at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. GraceAnna holds a BA in Early Childhood Education from Clemson University and is passionate about building into the lives of children, primarily her own two daughters. GraceAnna and her mom host a weekly radio program, Mothering from the Heart, which can be heard Wednesdays at 11am (EST) at WAGP.net. GraceAnna blogs regularly at www.graceannacastleberry.com
The following article was written by Dr. Broggi's son Jordan and published by the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood.
By Jordan Broggi
One hundred sixty-eight hours. In concept it certainly seems an adequate amount of time to accomplish everything one desires to do in a given week. And yet, most of us find ourselves going to bed on Saturday nights thinking about all of the things that we left undone during the prior seven days. If you find yourself in this position frequently, it’s likely that you either have unbalanced priorities, are guilty of time squandering, or both.
It was 8 o’clock one Thursday evening when it finally dawned on me that I was entirely out of balance. I was reading Robert McCloskey’s Blueberries for Sal to my two toddlers and fell asleep right about at the part where Little Sal and Little Bear get mixed up on different sides of the mountain. It’s not that I fell asleep for the night (though I had done that before), it was just one of those quick dozes where I quickly woke up with my boys asking me why I had stopped reading. I finished the story, prayed with them, and kissed them goodnight. I wandered downstairs where my wife was waiting patiently for me to have dinner with her. Because I had only arrived home from the airport at 7:30, we had yet to talk about anything, and she was anxious to hear about the week.
The week had been long. It started like every week, Sunday morning in church and Sunday afternoon spending time together as a family. But once the alarm beeped on Monday morning, it had been nonstop. First it was a 14-hour day at the office, where my colleagues and I debated the macro drivers of vacation demand in Europe and price elasticity of non-essential goods. At the time, I was working for one of the world’s most prestigious consulting firms, and the work was always frenetic.
Tuesday morning came early, as it always did on travel days. A 7:30 flight meant leaving for the airport at 6:25, which meant waking up at five-o’clock-something. As a platinum flyer, I took pride in having shaved every minute possible from the airport routine – park close, use the fastest lines, and NEVER check a bag. But despite being a solid half-hour faster than the unsophisticated traveler, there was no way to make a plane fly any faster. To be in Miami for a morning meeting, the day had to start early.
The week flew by. Our team worked Tuesday and Wednesday nights until midnight, but by Thursday morning was ready to present to the CEO of our client. The analysis was solid, the recommendation clear, and the audience pleased. It was high fives driving back to the airport to catch the afternoon flight back to Atlanta.
By 9:00 that night, my wife and I were discussing alternative career options. Something with a bit more – balance.
Balancing the desire to be a self-fed Thessalonian
One of the things that make the Bible such a fantastic book is its ability to relate to everyone. All of us are different in our backgrounds, personalities, and areas of sinful behavior. And yet just as the Gospel is uniquely relevant for all mankind, so too is Christian admonition suitable for every believer. And lest we take a verse, bend it out of context, and use it to suit our own desires, the Bible is rich with point-counterpoint consonance. For example, the Bible clearly puts forth a soteriology themed by grace alone. And yet, it then addresses the complaint of antinomianism. But not stopping there, it also condemns legalism, just before it reminds us that good works are the proof of grace. Impressive, yes?
The concept of labor is no different. God created work ever before sin entered the world (“God said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it’” Gen 1:27). The Proverbs esteem diligent labor done with integrity. Paul went as far as to tell the church at Thessalonica not to give food to those unwilling to work. And yet, there is balance in the greater context of scripture that establishes boundaries to what it means to work.
Might I list a few:
- Psalm 5:3 – In the morning, O Lord, You will hear my voice.
- Ephesians 5:25 – Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church.
- Deuteronomy 6:6-7 – These words … shall be on your heart. You shall teach them diligently to your sons and shall talk of them when you sit in your house and when you walk by the way and when you lie down and when you rise up.
- Hebrews 10:24-25 – Let us … not forsake our own assembling together.
The list could go on, but from these alone I see guidance to spend time with God, with my wife, with my children, and with my church. How can I effectually do these things if I am spending the entirety of my sane hours working?
Establishing a proper ambit
A beauty of the Bible is that it is specific where required, yet general when allowed. This allows us practical instruction, but also freedom from legalism and burden. With that said, allow me to share the guidelines that I have established to best obey the commands referenced above. Though these specifics are not necessarily commanded in scripture, I do believe they allow me to be obedient in the broader commands that have been given.
No work on Sundays. Period
I’ll let the seminary guys debate New Testament application of the 4th commandment, but I’m convinced and convicted that Sundays need to be a day of worship and rest. For me, that means no work related to my profession – no calls, no emails, nothing. I made this a hard and fast rule before I ever started my career, and it has made subsequent decisions easier. Rather than debating Sunday work every time an ‘emergency’ arises, I’ve answered the question once and for all up front.
Time with God and time with the saints
In my organized way of structuring a week, slotting some 20-minute slots with God seemed a good way to grow in my faith. And yet, it carried a flawed assumption that growth only requires a Bible and a chair. I do not want to take away from the importance of alone time with God – it is the most important growth enabler. But ‘quiet times’ are merely table stakes. What about fellowship with other believers? Evangelism? Corporate prayer? The Christian life should not be lived only internal or only external. It must be holistic.
Family time cannot be limited to weekends only
At some point I lulled myself into thinking that as long as I spent all of Saturday and Sunday with my family, I was being obedient with regards to loving my wife and raising my children. In reality, the notion is based on faulty logic that assumes all hours are equal and sequencing is not important. This same logic would say that I should sleep for 56 hours to start the week and then remain awake for 112 consecutive hours. Let. Me. Know. How. That. Turns……….
The annals of self
This is only an account of one man’s attempt to please God with his time. In the first paragraph, I raised two concepts – balance and dissipation. My issue was balance. But maybe yours is different. I challenge you to ask God to show you how you can better honor Him with your time. I can tell you from experience that it’s worth finding out.
Jordan Broggi lives in Atlanta, GA, with his wife Maureen and their four wonderful children. They are members of Church of the Apostles, and most Sunday mornings can be found teaching 3 and 4 year-olds the Gospel in room 304.
Jordan is a graduate of The University of South Carolina and Harvard Business School, and works in the field of Corporate Strategy and M&A.
By Ed Vernoy
I have thoroughly enjoyed ministry outreach at Search the Scriptures since coming on board in June of 2011, and I am not alone in this feeling. Many of you have faithfully supported and prayed for this ministry since its inception in 1998, and those that are more recent listeners have adopted likewise the vision of this ministry.
As director of Search the Scriptures, most correspondence comes across my desk, be it by the modern via of digital technology, or the handwritten notes in stamped envelopes. Just as much as our ministry has blessed you, your financial support and notes of encouragement have equally blessed us.
One such note recently came across my desk in response to a previous personal phone call from our ministry:
“Dear Folks, Thanks so much for your prayers – they are some of the most precious blessings we can receive from each other. My wife and I are both 86 years young and married 64 years. We have our serious health issues, but the Lord supplies our joy every day. Pastor Broggi’s messages are a necessary lifeline fro us continually! I pray that He will strengthen and enable him and Mrs. Broggi in all their ministries. God bless you for persevering. RLH – Maine”
Thank you all for the prayers and support that make this ministry possible. Everyone, from the volunteer staff to Dr. Broggi, is encouraged and blessed by your faithful participation. May God continue to bless the spread of His word through Search the Scriptures and your ministry where ever the Lord may find you.
Dr. Tony Evans preached these sermons for the Beaufort Revival, which was hosted by the Parish Church of St. Helena and Community Bible Church of Beaufort. We hope you enjoy these special messages!
By Drew Kuehl
I think we all have a different picture in our minds of what heaven is going to be like. There are a few passages in the Bible that give us some idea of what it’s like, but a lot is still left to our imagination. A couple years ago, when my daughter Kara was 2 or 3, my wife, Amy, was putting her to bed one night and noticed she was deep in thought. She asked her what she was thinking about and Kara said “Mommy, I don’t think I want to go to heaven.” Amy was a bit surprised and so she asked, “why wouldn’t you want to go to heaven?” Kara looked up at her with concern on her face and said “because Mommy, what if I slipped on a cloud and fell right back to earth?”
You see, in her mind, heaven was a sort of place where you get to jump around on clouds above the earth and look down on what everyone’s doing. Though what Kara had imagined might not be the case, we do know that it is a place of unrestrained joy and freedom from our earthly bonds. When I think about it, I find myself torn inside. I would love to be there and see and experience it, but I also want to be here with my family that I love. So I always come to the conclusion that I find myself coming on many other issues as well: I have to trust in God’s perfect plan and timing.
This week as we continued our study of Philippians, we tackled verse 19 to 26 of chapter 1. We looked at verse 19 and saw how Paul used the power of prayer and relied on the provision of the Holy Spirit. We then saw in verses 20-21 that Paul was ultimately confident about his deliverance because he had given Christ first place in his life. We talked about how verse 21 is really Paul’s purpose statement and should be ours as well. I think it’s important for us to think about how we would honestly complete this sentence? For to me, to live is ______? What gets you up in the morning? What gets you excited? When you say, “That’s what life is all about,” what are you referring to? Here’s the issue. No one can leave that sentence blank. Everyone is living for something. What are you living for right now?
For Paul to live was Christ and to die was gain. The word “gain” that Paul uses refers to “profit” or interest on money. As Christians, we come out ahead when we’re dead. Actually, we’re not really dead when we die. We leave this world to spend eternity in another world. What do we gain? We gain a better body, a better home, a better inheritance and better fellowship. Live or die as Christians, it’s a win win situation. We finished by looking at verses 22-26 and we saw that we need to be prepared to die but plan to really live.
I’ve had many family members die in just the last few years: 3 Grandparents, an Aunt and my cousin and best friend. I know the truth that the longer I live, the more people I’ll see die. I rejoice in knowing that each knew Jesus and is present with their Savior. When I think about my life I’m torn as Paul was, but as he ultimately did I can say to live is Christ. That means to live is to share the gospel and teach the word of God to anyone God puts in my path. But to die is to come face to face with the God who created me and His Son who saved me. I can’t think of anything better.